Javad Parvizi, MD1, Mark H. Ereth, MD1 and David G. Lewallen, MD1
1 Departments of Orthopedics (J.P. and D.G.L.) and Anesthesiology (M.H.E.), Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S.W., Rochester, MN 55905. E-mail address for D.G. Lewallen: firstname.lastname@example.org
Hip fractures are associated with a substantial mortality rate. Previous reports on perioperative mortality associated with hip arthroplasty for the treatment of acute fracture have not documented demographic and surgical characteristics that increase the likelihood of death. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, perioperative death following hip arthroplasty for the treatment of acute fracture.
Data were compiled from the computerized total joint registry at a single institution to determine the mortality rate following hip arthroplasty according to age, gender, diagnosis, implant type, and fixation mode. A review of this database revealed that 7774 consecutive patients had undergone hip arthroplasty for the treatment of an acute fracture between 1969 and 1997. The medical records of all patients who had died within thirty days after hip arthroplasty were reviewed retrospectively.
The overall mortality rate within thirty days after hip arthroplasty for the treatment of an acute fracture was 2.4% (186 of 7774), yet notable variations in the mortality rate were seen within clinical subgroups. The thirty-day mortality rate was significantly higher for patients who had received a cemented implant, female patients, elderly patients, patients with cardiorespiratory comorbidities, and patients with intertrochanteric fractures. With the numbers available, there was no significant difference in mortality between patients who had been managed with total hip arthroplasty and those who had been managed with hemiarthroplasty.
Hip arthroplasty for the diagnosis of acute fracture is associated with a nearly tenfold higher rate of perioperative mortality compared with elective hip arthroplasty. Medical optimization, appropriate choice of implants, and vigilant intraoperative management of these patients are essential.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American) 86:1983-1988 (2004).