Reconstrucción vertebral en fractura por compresión vertebral osteoporótica.

«Reconstrucción vertebral con cemento de fosfato cálcico biodegradable en el tratamiento de la fractura por compresión vertebral osteoporótica usando instrumentación.»

Matsuyama Y, Goto M, Yoshihara H, Tsuji T, Sakai Y, Nakamura H, Sato K, Kamiya M, Ishiguro N.
*Orthopedic Department, Nagoya University School of Medicine; daggerDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital Nagoya; and double daggerDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Aichi Medical University, Aichi, Japan.

OBJECTIVE:: To assess the efficacy of posterior instrumentation and vertebral reconstruction with biodegradable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with neurologic deficit.

BACKGROUND:: Vertebroplasty consists of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement into the vertebral body. While PMMA has high mechanical strength, it cures fast and thus allows only a short handling time. Other potential problems of using PMMA injection may include damage to surrounding tissues due to the high polymerization temperature or by the toxic unreacted monomer and the lack of long-term biocompatibility. Bone mineral cements such as calcium carbonate and CPCs have a longer working time and low thermal effect. They are also biodegradable while providing good mechanical strength. However, the viscosity of injectable mineral cements is high, and the infiltration of these cements into the vertebral body has been questioned. Recently, the infiltration properties of CPC have been significantly improved, making it more suitable for injection into the vertebral bodies for vertebral reconstruction.

METHODS:: Five patients were included in this open prospective study. Inclusion criteria were delayed collapsed vertebral compression fractures responsible for severe pain and neurologic dysfunction necessitating posterior decompression surgery. Of five patients, two were male and three were female with an average age at surgery of 80.4 years (71-85 years) and an average duration of follow-up of 2.5 years (2-3.5 years). Evaluation of clinical data was based on x-ray, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for low back pain (full score is 29 points), and Visual Analog Scale (VAS).

RESULTS:: The levels of the delayed collapsed vertebrae were T10, L1, and L2 (for one patient each) and L4 (two patients). All patients were in poor condition, for example, renal failure, heart failure, and chronic hepatitis. The average operative time was 2 hours (1 hour 36 minutes to 2 hours 16 minutes), and intraoperative bleeding was 181 mL (85-236 mL). As for clinical symptoms, preoperative JOA score averaged 17.8 points and was improved to 26 points postoperatively, while the preoperative VAS score of 8.6 points improved to 2 points postoperatively. Morphologic evaluation showed preoperative vertebral compression ratio averaged 41% and improved to 74% immediately after the operation and finally settled at 68%. Just one of five cases experienced late vertebral collapse 3 months after the operation.

CONCLUSION:: Vertebral reconstruction with biodegradable CPC in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture using instrumentation was a safe and useful surgical treatment.

J Spinal Disord Tech. 2004 Aug;17(4):291-296.

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