«Papel del ejercicio en la modulación del impacto de una dieta ultra alta en lípidos y apolipoproteínas en pacinees con alto riesgo de enfermedad arterial coronaria.»
Debra A. Marshall MD, , Marina N. Vernalis DO, Alan T. Remaley PhD, Elaine M. Walizer MSN, John P. Scally MD and Allen J. Taylor MD
Walter Reed Army Medical Center Cardiology Service, Washington, DC Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, MD National Institutes of Health Department of Laboratory Medicine, Bethesda, MD
Background Ultralow-fat diets are known to reduce high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In the setting of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention program, relationships between exercise variables and HDL-C levels were examined to determine whether exercise moderates this dietary effect on serum lipids and apolipoproteins.
Methods We performed a 3-month, prospective, nonrandomized lifestyle intervention study (≤10% dietary fat; aerobic exercise [180 min/wk], group support, and yoga [60 min/day]) in 120 subjects with or at risk for coronary artery disease.
Results After 3 months, dietary fat intake was reduced to 8.7% ± 2.6% of total intake and the median weekly exercise time was 194 minutes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased by 8.3 ± 11.3 mg/dL (P < .001), and triglyceride levels increased by 17.6 ± 102.7 mg/dL (P = .026). A small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) phenotype emerged indicated by a 13.8% LDL-C reduction accompanied by only a 2.3% reduction in apolipoprotein B levels (P = .064). Among subjects with exercise amounts less than those of the group median, HDL-C reductions were greater in those with more than (−13.5 ± 16.0 mg/dL) versus less than (−2.5 ± 7.5 mg/dL) the median reductions in fat intake (P = .026). Even among subjects who exercised >194 min/wk, HDL-C was reduced compared with baseline (−7.4 ± 7.9 mg/dL, P < .001).
Conclusions An ultralow-fat diet as a component of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention induces reductions in HDL-C and the emergence of a dyslipidemic lipid profile. Aerobic exercise only partially mitigates this effect.
American Heart Journal Volume 151, Issue 2 , February 2006, Pages 484-491.