Denard PJ, Koval KJ, Cantu RV, Weinstein JN.
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA.
Fractures of the clavicle are common injuries. The usual mechanism of clavicle fracture is a direct fall on the shoulder. There are 3 types of clavicle fractures, but type II or midshaft fractures make up the vast majority. Most clavicle fractures can be effectively treated nonoperatively. Rates of nonunion and poor functional outcome, however, may be higher than previously thought. Risk factors for nonunion include initial fracture displacement, comminution, shortening, and older age. The 2 main methods of operative management are plate-and-screws and intramedullary fixation. Study results for both methods have been good. Indications for operative management, however, remain controversial.
Am J Orthop. 2005 Nov;34(11):527-36.