Aim is to identify if age, sex, type of posterolateral approach (mini vs standard), surgical time and time from surgery to drainage removal were independent risk factors for heterotopic ossifications after total hip arthroplasty.
Materials and methods
Patients who underwent a THA with posterolateral approach during a 15 years period were included. The exclusion criteria were absence of X-rays follow-up or HO prophylaxis protocol adoption. The following data were collected: age, sex, type of approach (classical/minimal-invasive), surgical time, time from surgery to drainage removal. Two orthopedic surgeons independently reviewed the 2 years follow-up X-rays and classified the HO according to Brooker classification. Severe HO was defined if HO were classified as major than grade 2. Correlation between severe HO and risk factor has been tested with multivariable analysis.
About 1225 patients were included: mean age of 63.8 years, 504 were men. HO were found in 67.6%. Men showed higher severe HO rate than woman (44.1% vs 29.1%, p = 0.001). Patients older than 65 years showed higher severe HO rate (30.3% vs 39.9%, p = 0.002). Standard posterolateral approach was performed in 75.4% and severe HO rate was 32.8% versus 27.1% in those treated with the minimally invasive approach (p = 0.067).
In 75.6% of cases surgery lasted less than 90 min and this group showed a severe HO rate in 29.1%, while patient with longer surgical time showed a rate of 35.7% (p = 0.033). In 47.4% of patients, the drainage was removed in the first post-operative day, in this group severe HO rate was significantly lower than the others: 24.8 versus 36.2% (p = 0.001).
Male sex, age older than 65 years, surgical time longer than 90 min and delayed drainage removal are risk factors for severe HO. Patients with one or more of those risk factors should be identified as good candidates for HO prophylaxis.