Mountaineer Orthopedic Specialists, LLC, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.
Anterior knee pain is a frequent clinical problem. It provides a common challenge to diagnose and manage. Basic science studies have provided insight into the origin of anterior knee pain and refined understanding of the anatomy. Clinical evaluation has progressively focused on the contribution of the entire lower extremity to patellofemoral function. Nonsurgical management has been refined by the concept of the «envelope of function» and by increased understanding of the neuromuscular control of the knee. Indications for lateral release have been clarified and narrowed. Although anteromedial transfer of the tibial tuberosity is helpful in certain circumstances, reports of postoperative fracture have led to less aggressive rehabilitation protocols. Chondral resurfacing of the patellofemoral joint and patellofemoral arthroplasty are evolving. Emphasis should remain on nonsurgical management, which is sufficient in most patients.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2005 Dec;13(8):534-43.