Garofalo R, Moretti B, Ortolano V, Cariola P, Solarino G, Wettstein M, Mouhsine E.
The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate 18 consecutive cases of peritalar dislocations referred to our department during a period of 25 years and to delineate the factors influencing long-term prognosis. There were 13 (73%) medial and 5 (27%) lateral dislocations. Six patients (33%) suffered an open injury, including 2 of 13 (15%) medial and 4 of 5 (80%) lateral dislocations. Associated fractures involving the hindfoot or forefoot were noted in 7 feet, including 3 of 5 lateral dislocation cases. Reduction was accomplished under general anesthesia; in no case was open reduction necessary. In 4 of 6 open injuries with associated fractures, temporary fixation with Kirschner wires was performed. Patients were immobilized in a plaster cast for 4 weeks, or for 6 weeks in the presence of fracture, followed by weightbearing as tolerated. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years (range, 4 to 26 years), 10 patients (56%) showed excellent results; all had sustained a closed medial low-energy dislocation. There were 3 cases (17%) with fair results and 5 cases (28%) with poor results. Forty-five percent of patients showed a restriction of activity, a reduction of subtalar range of motion, and moderate or severe radiographic signs of hindfoot degenerative arthritis. There were no cases of talar avascular necrosis, and in no case was secondary surgery necessary. Lateral dislocation and open medial dislocations with concomitant fractures showed a greater potential for poor prognosis. The results were independent from period of cast immobilization, suggesting that 4 to 6 weeks of immobilization provides acceptable long-term results.
J Foot Ankle Surg. 2004 May-Jun;43(3):166-72.