Fármacos condroprotectivos en enfermedades de articulaciones degenerativas.(I)

G. Verbruggen

Department of Rheumatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Catabolic cytokine and anabolic growth factor pathways control destruction and repair in osteoarthritis (OA). A unidirectional TNF-/IL-1-driven cytokine cascade disturbs the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage in OA. Although chondrocytes in OA cartilage overexpress anabolic insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and its specific receptor (IGFRI) autocrine TNF- released by apoptotic articular cartilage cells sets off an auto/paracrine IL-1-driven cascade that overrules the growth factor activities that sustain repair in degenerative joint disease. Chondroprotection with reappearance of a joint space that had disappeared has been documented unmistakably in peripheral joints of patients suffering from spondyloarthropathy when treated with TNF--blocking agents that repressed the unidirectional TNF-/IL-1-driven cytokine cascade. A series of connective tissue structure-modifying agents (CTSMAs) that directly affect IL-1 synthesis and release in vitro and down-modulate downstream IL-1 features, e.g. collagenase, proteoglycanase and matrix metalloproteinase activities, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, the increased release of nitric oxide, and the secretion of prostaglandin E2, IL-6 and IL-8, have been shown to possess disease-modifying OA drug (DMOAD) activities in experimental models of OA and in human subjects with finger joint and knee OA. Examples are corticosteroids, some sulphated polysaccharides, chemically modified tetracyclines, diacetylrhein/rhein, glucosamine and avocado/soybean unsaponifiables.

Rheumatology 2006 45(2):129-138.

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