Perry L. Schoenecker, MD, John C. Clohisy, MD, Michael B. Millis, MD and Dennis R. Wenger, MD
Surgical management of the problematic hip in adolescent and young adult patients can be challenging. In many of these patients, hip arthrosis and pain occur secondary to hip dysplasia associated with chronic instability, whether the result of prior treatment or chronic unmanaged acetabular dysplasia. Surgical techniques such as the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy are performed to correct acetabular deficiency, restore hip joint stability, and eliminate pain. Patients with previous Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease or slipped capital femoral epiphysis frequently note onset of symptomatic hip arthrosis and pain in adolescence or young adulthood. Pain occurs secondary to pathologic impingement of the deformed proximal femur against the anterolateral acetabulum (ie, femoroacetabular impingement). The recent successful innovation of the transtrochanteric surgical hip dislocation approach provides complete access to the hip and offers the potential for comprehensive correction of both the often severe proximal femoral deformity and associated labral chondral disease secondary to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Restoration of more normal proximal femoral morphology results in marked improvement in functional outcome. Effective orthopaedic management requires an understanding of the mechanisms of hip disease as well as surgical expertise.