Philip D. Nowicki, J Am Acad Orthop Surg December 2012 ; 20 Abstract
Management of perioperative pain is critical in the pediatric patient undergoing orthopaedic surgery. A variety of modalities can be used to manage pain and optimize recovery and patient satisfaction, including nonopioid and opioid analgesia; local anesthetic injection; and regional analgesia such as intrathecal morphine, epidural therapy, and peripheral nerve blocks. Acute pain management can be tailored based on the needs of the patient, the surgical site, and the anticipated level of postoperative pain. A preoperative discussion of the plan for perioperative pain control with the patient, his or her parents, and the anesthesiologist can help manage expectations and maximize patient satisfaction.