Am J Orthop. 2008 Apr;37(4):191-7. Brown GD, Swanson EA, Nercessian OA. Neurologic injuries are a potentially devastating complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Review of the literature reveals that these injuries are uncommon. The reported incidence ranges from 0.08% to 7.6%. The incidence in primary THA ranges from 0.09% to 3.7% and in revision THA from 0% to 7.6%. Reported etiologies include intraoperative direct nerve injury, significant leg lengthening, improper retractor placement, cement extravasation, cement-related thermal damage, patient positioning, manipulation, and postoperative hematoma. Risk factors include developmental dysplasia of the hip, the female sex, posttraumatic arthritis, and revision surgery. However, no single risk factor has been consistently reported to be significant, and many patients with no known risk factors incur neurologic injuries.