Cluett, Jonathan C. MD 1; Kasper, James C. MD 1; Mandelbaum, Bert R. MD 1; Mithoefer, Kai MD 2
Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) uses cultured chondrocytes implanted beneath a periosteal patch for the treatment of focal chondral defects of the knee. ACI can be used for defects measuring 2 to 10 cm2. The surgery is performed in 2 stages. In the first stage, a biopsy of normal cartilage is taken from a non-weight-bearing portion of the knee. The biopsy sample is processed and the isolated cells are expanded through cell culture to approximately 12 million chondrocytes. In the second stage of the procedure, the cells are implanted into the chondral defect, beneath a periosteal patch. Rehabilitation consists of early range of motion with restricted weight bearing. Most patients return to daily activities within 4 months, with return to sport at 12 to 16 months.
Techniques in Knee Surgery. 5(3):158-164, September 2006.