Benjamin Noonan J Am Acad Orthop Surg December 2012 ; 20 Abstract
Both extreme heat and cold can be challenging for athletes during training and competition. One role of the team physician is to educate coaches and athletes on the risks of exposure to these conditions and how to best prevent and manage their adverse effects. Heat illness varies in degree from mild to severe, with the most severe forms being potentially fatal. Cold exposure can result in systemic effects and peripheral injury to the extremities.