«El calcio y la vitamina D: los desarrollos actuales en la prevención de osteoporosis y osteomalacia.»
Nieves, Jeri W
Purpose of review:
Adequate nutrition plays a major role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis; the nutrients of greatest importance are calcium and vitamin D. In addition, vitamin D plays a major role in the prevention of osteomalacia. There have been several recent advances in the literature that confirm and expand the role of calcium and vitamin D in later life and question whether we need to be more aware of the role of these nutrients earlier in life.
There have been numerous publications that document that serum 25(OH)D levels are consistently low in elderly people and recent reports indicate that seasonal variation in serum 25(OH)D may result in sub optimal levels at all ages. This is very important since data suggests that the serum 25(OH)D level may influence peak bone mass, fall rates, osteoporotic fracture rates, and potentially nonspecific neuromuscular pain. In addition, vitamin D supplementation is recommended for the prevention of rickets. Two recent randomized controlled studies, one with vitamin D alone and the other combining calcium and vitamin D reported significant reductions in fracture rates.
The implications of these findings are that healthcare professionals need to be aware of the importance of adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (easily monitored by serum 25(OH)D) for optimal bone health, as well as the prevention of falls and fractures. Further research should focus on the potential role of vitamin D on peak bone mass and a consensus regarding the optimal serum 25(OH)D level for bone and overall health.
Current Opinion in Orthopedics. 15(5):383-388, October 2004.