Bénédicte Forthomme, PT*,, Jean-Louis Croisier, PhD, PT, Guido Ciccarone, MD, Jean-Michel Crielaard, PhD, MD and Marc Cloes, PhD, PE
From the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium, the Department of Sports Medicine, University of Sienna, Sienna, Italy, and the Department of Sport and Physical Activities, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
* Address correspondence to Bénédicte Forthomme, PT, Service de Médecine Physique, Chu Sart TilmanB35, B-4000 Liege, Belgium (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Background: Spike effectiveness represents a determining element in volleyball. To compete at a high level, the player must, in particular, produce a spike characterized by a high ball velocity.
Hypothesis: Some muscular and physical features could influence ball velocity during the volleyball spike. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study.
Methods: A total of 19 male volleyball players from the 2 highest Belgian national divisions underwent an isokinetic assessment of the dominant shoulder and elbow. Ball velocity performance (radar gun) during a spike test, morphological feature, and jump capacity (ergo jump) of the player were measured. We tested the relationship between the isokinetic parameters or physical features and field performances represented by spike velocity. We also compared first-division and second-division player data.
Results: Spike velocity correlated significantly with strength performance of the dominant shoulder (internal rotators) and of the dominant elbow (flexors and extensors) in the concentric mode. Negative correlations were established with the concentric external rotator on internal rotator ratio at 400 deg/s and with the mixed ratio (external rotator at 60 deg/s in the eccentric mode on internal rotator at 240 deg/s in the concentric mode). Positive correlations appeared with both the volleyball players jump capacity and body mass index. First-division players differed from second-division players by higher ball velocity and increased jump capacity.
Conclusion: Some specific strength and physical characteristics correlated significantly with spike performance in high-level volleyball practice.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine 33:1513-1519 (2005).