«Comparación entre dispositivos de fijación femoral diferentes para la reconstrucción ACL con injerto de tendón de la corva doble: Análisis biomecánico.»
Giuseppe Milano M.D.a, , , Pier Damiano Mulas M.D.b, Fabio Ziranu M.D.b, Stefano Piras M.D.b, Andrea Manunta M.D.b and Carlo Fabbriciani M.D.a
aDepartment of Orthopaedics, Catholic University, Rome bDepartment of Orthopaedics, Sassari, Italy
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the mechanical behavior of some devices used for femoral fixation of doubled hamstring tendon graft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction when included in a graft fixation complex (GFC).
Methods: An ACL reconstruction was performed on 90 porcine knees. The graft used was the doubled lateral extensor of toes (DLET). Nine different femoral fixation devices were tested and classified according to their fixation mechanism: compression (Bioscrew and RCI screw); expansion (Rigidfix); cortical suspension (Ligament Anchor, EndoButton-CL, and Swing Bridge); cancellous suspension (Linx-HT); and cortical-cancellous suspension (Transfix and Bio-Transfix). All GFC were subjected to a cyclic loading test, then to a load-to-failure test. Graft elongation after 1,000 load cycles, failure load, and stiffness were calculated for each device.
Results: Regarding graft elongation, Bioscrew and RCI screws showed the highest mean values. All the other GFC showed no significant differences between them when δ elongation (elongation1,000 cycles − elongation20 cycles) was considered. For failure load, the highest mean values were observed for Bio-Transfix, Transfix, and Swing Bridge; a homogeneous subset with the lowest mean values was formed by Ligament Anchor, RCI screw, Bioscrew, and Linx-HT. For stiffness, the greatest values were observed for Bio-Transfix, Transfix, and Swing Bridge; all other groups showed no significant differences between them.
Conclusions: Cortical-cancellous suspension fixation seemed to offer the best and most predictable results in terms of elongation, fixation strength, and stiffness. For both compression and suspension, the weakest fixation was attained with cancellous fixation devices. Cortical suspension devices showed a greatly variable mechanical behavior, according to their design. Clinical Relevance: Transcondylar devices offer the best structural properties for femoral fixation of doubled hamstring tendon graft in ACL reconstruction.
Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery Volume 22, Issue 6 , 1 June 2006, Pages 660-668.