Philipp N. Streubel, J Am Acad Orthop Surg. May 2014 vol. 22 no. 5 Abstract
The glenohumeral joint is the most frequently dislocated major joint, and most cases involve an anterior dislocation. Young male athletes competing in contact sports are at especially high risk of recurrent instability. Surgical timing and selection of surgical technique continue to be debated. Full characterization of the injury requires an accurate history and physical examination. Diagnostic imaging assists in identifying the underlying anatomic lesions, which range from no discernible lesion to significant bone loss of the glenoid or humeral head and/or capsulolabral stretching or avulsion from the glenoid or humerus. Historically, open Bankart repair has been considered to be the standard method of managing capsulolabral injuries, but comparable results have been achieved with arthroscopic techniques. In the setting of anterior glenoid bone loss >20% of the articular surface, iliac crest bone grafting or coracoid transfer via the Bristow or Latarjet procedures has demonstrated satisfactory outcomes. Favorable results have been reported with bone grafting or remplissage for engaging Hill-Sachs lesions and those that affect >30% of the humeral circumference.